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The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a United Nations body established in 1988, regularly evaluates the latest climate science and produces consensus reports for countries. The negotiations on the Paris Settlement at COP 24 proved more difficult in some respects than those that led to the Paris Agreement, as the parties faced a mix of technical and political challenges and, in some respects, had greater stakes in trying to develop the general provisions of the agreement through detailed guidelines. Delegates adopted rules and procedures on risk mitigation, transparency, adaptation, financing, regular inventories and other Paris regulations. However, they could not agree on the rules of Article 6, which provides for voluntary cooperation between the parties in the implementation of their NDCs, including through market-based approaches. Since Trump`s announcement, U.S. envoys have continued to participate in UN climate talks as required to solidify the details of the deal. Meanwhile, thousands of leaders across the country have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of federal climate leadership, reflecting the will of the vast majority of Americans who support the Paris Agreement. Among city and state leaders, business leaders, universities, and individuals, there has been a wave of participation in initiatives such as America`s Pledge, the U.S. Climate Alliance, We Are Still In, and the American Cities Climate Challenge. Complementary and sometimes overlapping movements aim to deepen and accelerate efforts to combat climate change at local, regional and national levels. Each of these efforts is focused on the U.S.

working toward the goals of the Paris Agreement, despite Trump`s attempts to steer the country in the opposite direction. Recognizing that many developing countries and small island states that have contributed the least to climate change could suffer the most from its consequences, the Paris Agreement includes a plan for developed countries – and others that are „able to do so” – to continue to provide funds to help developing countries mitigate and increase their resilience to climate change. The agreement builds on financial commitments from the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, which aimed to increase public and private climate finance for developing countries to $100 billion a year by 2020. (To put this in perspective, global military spending in 2017 alone amounted to about $1.7 trillion, more than a third of which came from the United States.) The Copenhagen Compact also created the Green Climate Fund to help mobilize transformative financing with targeted public funds. The Paris Agreement set hope that the world would set a higher annual target by 2025 to build on the $100 billion target for 2020 and put in place mechanisms to achieve that scale. While increasing NDC ambitions is an important objective of the global inventory, it assesses efforts that go beyond mitigation. The 5-year reviews will also assess adaptation, climate finance regulations, and technology development and transfer. [29] From 2 to 15 December 2019, a COP 25 marathon was held in Madrid, Spain, under the presidency of Chile. Governments reiterated an earlier call for parties to reflect „their highest possible ambition” by presenting a new round of NDCs in 2020, but they also failed to adopt rules for international emissions trading under Article 6, the last major part of the „regulation” for the implementation of the Paris Agreement. In addition, vulnerable developing countries have expressed growing despair at the scarcity of resources available to them to cope with worsening climate impacts.

The desire for a more ambitious goal was maintained in the deal – with the promise to further limit global temperatures to 1.5°C. Adaptation – measures to combat the effects of climate change – will be much more important under the Paris Agreement than before under the UNFCCC. Just as the Parties will submit mitigation contributions, the Agreement requires all Parties to plan and implement adaptation efforts „where necessary” and encourages all Parties to report on their adaptation efforts and/or needs. The agreement also provides for a review of progress on adaptation and the adequacy and effectiveness of adaptation support as part of the global stocktaking, to be carried out every five years. Negotiators of the agreement said the INDCs presented at the Paris conference were inadequate and noted „with concern that the estimated overall greenhouse gas emissions in 2025 and 2030 resulting from the Intended Nationally Determined Contributions do not fall under the most cost-effective 2°C scenarios, but lead to a projected level of 55 gigatons in 2030.” and recognizing „that much greater efforts to reduce emissions will be needed to keep the increase in global average temperature below 2°C by reducing emissions to 40 gigatons or 1.5°C”. [25] [Clarification needed] A study published in 2018 indicates a threshold at which temperatures could reach 4 or 5 degrees (ambiguous expression, continuity would be „4-5°C”) relative to pre-industrial levels, thanks to self-reinforcing feedbacks in the climate system, suggesting that this threshold is below the 2-degree temperature target agreed in the Paris Climate Agreement. .

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